What is Tense?
Tense is the form taken by a verb to indicate time and continuance or completeness of action. The continuance or completeness of action is denoted by four subcategories.
Simple Tense: It is used for habitual or routine actions in the Present Tense, action which is over in the Past Tense and action to happen in the Future Tense.
Continuous Tense: The action is incomplete or continuous or going on.
Perfect Tense: The action is complete, finished, or perfect with respect to a certain point of time.
Perfect Continuous Tense: The action is going on continuously over a long period of time and is yet to be finished.
The different tenses and the verb forms used in each tense
Name of Tenses Verb form used in Tenses with Example
Present simple / indefinite Verb / verb + s/es
She writes a paper
Present continuous / Progressive Is/am/are + verb + ing
She is writing a paper
Present perfect Has / have + third form of verb
She has written a paper
Present perfect continuous Has / have + been + verb + ing
She has been writing a paper
Past simple / indefinite Second form of verb only
She wrote a paper
Past continuous / Progressive Was / were + verb + ing
She was writing a paper
Past perfect Had + third form of verb
She had written a paper
Past perfect continuous Had been + verb + ing
She had been writing a paper
Future simple / indefinite Shall / will + verb
She will write a paper
Future continuous / Progressive Shall / will + be + verb + ing
She will be writing a paper
Future perfect Shall / will + Have + past participle
She will have written a paper
Future perfect continuous Shall / will + have been + verb + ing
She will have been writing a paper
Uses of Simple Present Tense
Verb Forms: Verb / verb+s/es
1. To express a habitual action.
I get up every day at five o’clock.
2. To express general truths
Fortune favours the brave.
3. In vivid narrative, as substitute for the simple past.
Immediately the Sultan hurries to his capital.
4. To indicate a future event that is part of a fixed programme or timetable.
The train leaves at 5:20 am.
Note: We can also use will leave in place of leaves.
5. It is used to introduce quotations.
Keats says, ‘A thing of beauty is a joy forever.
6. In exclamatory’ sentences beginning with here and there to express what is actually taking place in the present.
Here comes the bus!
7. When two actions of the future are being talked about, one dependent on the other, the former action is represented by present simple and the latter by future simple.
We shall go when the child comes back home.
Uses of Present Continuous Tense
Verb Forms: is/am/are + verb + ing
1. For an action going on at the time of speaking.
The boys are playing cricket in the ground.
2. For a temporary action that may not be actually happening at the time of speaking but was happening in the recent past and is still happening in the recent future.
I am reading Sidney Sheldon now a days.
3. To express changing or developing situations.
India is progressing day by day.
4. For an action that is planned or arranged to take place in the near future.
I am going to cinema tonight.
Note: But it is not good to use the present continuous for slightly distant future. So, don’t say “I am going to cinema next week.”
Rather, use the future simple.
So, it is better if you say “I will go to the cinema next week.”
5. When the reference is to a particularly obstinate habit, the present continuous is used instead of present simple. An adverb like always, continually, constantly is also used.
It is no use scolding him; he always does what is forbidden. (Incorrect)
Note: that his doing what is forbidden has become a die-hard habit. The habit persists in spite of advice or warning. So, we should use the present continuous.
It is no use scolding him; he is always doing what is forbidden. (Correct)
Uses of Present Perfect Tense
Verb Forms: Has / have + third form of verb
1. To indicate the completed activities in the immediate past.
He has just gone out.
2. Action completed in the immediate past or an action of the past whose effect lingers in the present.
I wrote three books. (Incorrect)
The given sentence appears to be incomplete. The reader of the sentence immediately queries- “When did you write three books?” It would be a different case if you said
I wrote books.
Then the reader would infer that you wrote books in the past as a profession or hobby. But when you are being so specific as to say “three books”, we immediately feel the need of a time frame.
Since no time frame is mentioned, we assume it to be ‘by now’. So, we have something to the effect.
I have written three books by now.
This ‘by now’ is implied and need not be written.
So, for example:
I have written three books. (Correct)
3. The present perfect is never used with adverbs of past time. In such cases, the past simple should be used.
India has won the match last week (Incorrect)
“Last week” is not immediate past. You may therefore be tempted to use the present perfect. But remember that the immediate past here does not go unindicated. Last week is being used as an adverb of past time.
So, For example:
India won the match last week. (Correct)
4. To express past actions whose time is not given and not definite – actions with their effect continuing in the present.
I have never known him to be angry.
Have you read ‘Gulliver’s Travels’?
5. To describe the past events when we think more of their effect in the present than of the action itself.
I have cut my finger.
6. For long actions and situations which started in the near past and went on until very recently.
I have read three chapters since this morning.
Uses of Present Perfect Continuous Tense
Verb Forms: Has / have + been + verb + ing
For an action, which began at some time in the past and is still continuing. With the present perfect continuous tense an adverb or phrase that expresses time is used.
I have been reading this book since morning.
They have been building the bridge for several months.
Uses of Simple Past Tense
Verb Forms: Second form of verb only
1. To indicate an action completed in the past. Generally, adverbs or adverb phrases of past time are used in the past simple tense.
The steamer sailed yesterday.
He went home some time back.
2. To express imaginary present situations or imaginary future events that may not happen.
If I had longer holidays, I would be very happy.
If I got rich, I would travel all over the world.
3. When this tense is used without an adverb of time, then time may be either implied or indicated by the context.
I didn’t sleep well. (i.e., last night)
4. For past habits ‘used to’ is added to the verb.
She used to carry an umbrella.
Uses of Past Continuous Tense
Verb Forms: Was / were + verb + ing
1. To denote an action going on at some time in the past. The time of the action may or may not be indicated.
It was getting darker.
We were listening to the radio all evening.
2. When a new action happened in the middle of a longer action. In this case Past simple and Past continuous are used together. Past simple is used for the new action.
The light went out while I was reading.
3. For persistent habits in the past.
She was always chewing gum.
Uses of Past Perfect Tense
Verb Forms: Had + third form of verb
When two actions happened in the past. In this case it is necessary to show which action happened earlier than the other. Here past perfect is used for the action, which happened earlier.
When I reached the station the train had started.
I had done my exercise when Hari came to see me.
Past perfect continuous Tense
Verb Forms: Had been + verb + ing
An action that began before a certain point of time in the past and was continuing at the given point of time in the sentence. A time expression like since last year, for the last few days is generally put after perfect continuous tense.
At that time he had been writing a novel for two months.
Here, At that time is the given point of time and for two months is the point of time in the past.
Uses of Simple Future Tense
Verb Forms: Shall / will + verb
For an action that has still to take place.
I shall see him tomorrow.
Tomorrow will be Sunday.
Uses of Future Continuous Tense
Verb Forms: Shall / will + be + verb + ing
1. Represents an action as going on at sometime in the future.
I shall be reading the paper then.
2. Represents the future events that are planned.
He will be meeting us next week.
Uses of Future Perfect Tense
Verb Forms: Shall / will + Have + past participle
To indicate the completion of an event by a certain future time.
I shall have written my exercise by that time.
Uses of Future Perfect Continuous Tense
Verb Forms: Shall / will + have been + verb + ing
1. The future perfect continuous tense indicates an action represented it being in progress over a period of time that will end in the future. Generally, the time period is mentioned along with it.
By next July we shall have been living here for four years.
2. Event occurring at the same time must be given in the same tense.
When he fainted his brother was with him.
3. Will or Shall cannot be used twice in the same sentence even if both the actions refer to the future tense.
I shall come if he will call me. (Incorrect)
I shall come if he calls me. (Correct)
4. With the phrases as if and as though the past tense and plural form of the verb should be used.
He behaves as if he is a king. (Incorrect)
He behaves as if he were a king. (Correct)
5. With the word ‘wish’ four verbs are used namely were, had, could and would.
‘Were’ is used when the wish seems to be unrealisable.
I wish I were a king.
6. ‘Had’ is used when our wish is a lament over the past happening.
I wish I had accepted that job.
7. ‘Would’ is used when we refer to the future.
I wish I would get a ticket.
8. ‘Could’ is used when we wish that something that has happened already should have happened otherwise.
He did not go because he was busy yesterday. I wish he could go with you.
9. ‘For’ is used for a period of time.
He has been working for two hours.
10. ‘Since’ is used with a point of time.
He has been working since morning.
11. In case of conditional sentences ‘had’ and ‘would have’ are used.
If I had met him I would have invited him.